評價測試

聚焦what用法

  在高考英語中,考查或涉及what一詞用法的試題頻頻出現,只把它對譯成漢語的“什么”是不夠的。

在高考英語中,考查或涉及what一詞用法的試題頻頻出現,只把它對譯成漢語的“什么”是不夠的。現將其用法歸納如下:

一、what 作疑問代詞,意為“什么;哪個,哪些”。在句中作主語、賓語、表語或定語。例如:

What happened to his bike?(主語)

What did you say?(賓語) 你說什么?

Now what is this?(表語) 那么這是什么?

What country does he come from?(定語)

有時what前面可以帶上介詞。例如:

For what did you do it?(=What did you do it for?)你為何做這件事?

On what will you depend?(=What will you depend on?)你將依靠什么?

By what means did they get the information?他們是用什么方法得到這個信息的?

In what circumstances will they sign the agreement?他們將在什么情況下簽這個協議?

二、當what用作連接代詞,引導名詞性從句時,可引導主語從句、表語從句和賓語從句(不可引導定語從句);它本身在從句中充當主語、賓語或表語。

(一)what 表示“所以……的(事)”的意思,相當于“the thing(s) that…;all that…;that which…;everything that…;等。例如:  

1)Leave it with me and I'll see what I can do.    (what引導賓語從句并作do的賓語)

2) What we need is more time.(what引導主語從句做need的賓語)

3) What really matters is that she should change her attitude .4)What you have done might do harm to other people.(what引導主語從句并在從句中作賓語)

5)What he said at the meeting astonished everybodypresent.(what引導主語從句并在從句中作賓語)  

6)What is most important in life isn't money.   (what引導主語從句,并在從句中作主語)

7)But wait till you see what we'll make for you to your ownmeasure.(what引導賓語從句并在從句中作賓語)  

8)What we wanted to see was an end to all the armies of theworld.(what引導主語從句并在從句中作賓語)

9) They stopped to see whatwas happening.他們停下來看發生了什么事情。(主語)

10)The teacher got angrybecause of what the boy had done.那個男孩子做的事情讓老師很生氣。(what在賓語從句中作賓語)  

(二)What 表示“所……的(人)”意思,相當于“the person that…”等。例如:  

1)He is not what he used to be.他已不是從前的他了。(what引導表語從句并在從句中作表語)  

2)She is no longer what she was five years ago.   (what引導表語從句并在從句中作表語) .

(三)表示“……的地方”,相當于“the place that...”。如:

1)This is what they call Salt LakeCity.這就是他們稱作鹽湖城的地方。

2)What is now the North Sahara Desertwas once a civilized world.現在是北部撒哈拉沙漠的地方曾是一個文明世界。

(四)表示“……的數目”,相當于“the amount / number that...”如:

1)Our income is now double what itwas ten years ago.我們現在的收入是十年前的兩倍。

2)The number of the students in our school hasreached as many as 20,000, ten times what it was before liberation.現在我校學生多達2萬人,是解放前的十倍。

what的這種特殊含義可以根據句子的意思在翻譯時靈活處理,不可千篇一律。

再如:

1. Shenzhen is no longer what it wasin the past.深圳不再是過去那樣子了。(what=the city that)

2. The color of the flower is different from whatit was in the morning.花朵的顏色與早晨的不同。(what=the color that)

(五)What引導的名詞性從句還可作插入語,常用來引起下文,補充上文.可放句首或句中.例如:what delights/annoys/worries/surprises sb.(most)     what is more surprising….What was worse…   what is better still (更好的是),what is more (此外,而且),what is even more certain (更確切地說)

(六)注意在引導名詞性從句時,what一般要注意一個不(no),一個有(meaning),一個作(component):

1.不省略

what 引導名詞性從句時,what 在句中不省略。這一用法與that 用法不盡相同。

1) What I had for lunchyesterday was rice with eggs(what 在句中引導主語從句,what 不省略)

2)--I think it’s going to be a bigproblem.

--Yes , it could be.

--I wonder what we can doabout. (what在句中引導賓語從句,但在句中不省略)

2.有詞義

what 引導名詞性從句時,有詞義。一般是“……的東西/事情/話等”這一用法與that 用法不一樣

1) This is whatshe wanted to tell us. (what在句中引導表語從句,在句中有詞義,意思是“……的東西、事情)

2What the teacher said and did had agreat effect on the children. (what在句中引導主語從句,在句中有詞義,意思是“----的東西、事情)老師所說的話對孩子們有很大的影響。

3.作成分

what 在引導名詞性從句時,在從句中充當成分。這一用法與that 用法不一樣。

1)It doesn’t matter what he said.( it 是形式主語,what 在句中引導主語從句。What 在主語從句中作said 的賓語。)

2)It was true ______Alice did surprised hermother.

A. that what  B. whatthat  

C. that  that  D. all what

評析:這一題正確答案是A。it在句中是形式主語,that引導的是主語從句that Alice did surprised hermother.,在這個主語從句當中,what 又引導了主語從句whatAlice did,what在從句中作did 的賓語。

4.What所引導的從句可以在介詞后作賓語,而that從句一般不可以。

1)After months of voyage ,Columbus arrived in_____later proved to be a new continent.

A. where   B. which    C. what   D. that    

評析:答案是C。因為在介詞in 后面,應該用what引導的賓語從句,what在賓語從句中作主語。而that不可以這樣用。

2) On stepping into his room, he was astonished to find thefloor covered with _____ looked like tiny insects.

A. that    B. something

C.  what   D.anything

評析:答案是C。因為在介詞with 后面,應該用what引導的賓語從句,what在賓語從句中作主語。而that不可以這樣用。

5.注意:what不能引導定語從句。如不能說:  

1)He did all what he could tosave the patient

2)All what he needs is moretime

應將句中的what改為that,或去掉what, 還可以將以上兩句中的all去掉,但兩句的結構發生了根本的改變:句1)中的what引導賓語從句,句2)中的what引導主語從句。

三、what 用于感嘆句

What a good heart you have! 你的心腸真好!

What bad weather it is! 多糟糕的天氣呀!

What nonsense you talk! 你說什么糊涂話!

感嘆句的主語、謂語有時可省略。例如:

Oh, What a beautiful picture! 噢,多漂亮的一幅畫!

What a shame to steal.偷東西是多么可恥.

四、what 用于固定結構中

1. what about 表建議或征求對方意見,意為“……怎么樣?”。例如:

Of course I'll come. What about Friday? 我當然要來,星期五怎么樣?

What about sending him a book?

2. what if 意為“要是……怎么辦?”或“即使……又有什么關系”。例如:

What if a storm should come up?

What if he gets angry? 即使他生氣又有什么關系?

3.(and) what's more 意為“而且”。例如:

We invited a new speaker and, what's more, he was happy tocome.

我們邀請了一位新的演講者,而且,他很樂意來。

4. what … for 意為“為何目的;為何理由”。這一固定結構常用于口語中。例如:

What's that tool for? 那個工具是作什么用的?

5.So what? 表示不感興趣或認為不重要,意為“那又怎么樣? ”

6. what is called,what we call,what you call,意為“所謂的”。例如:

He is, what is called, a living dictionary. 他就是所謂的活詞典。

It is what you call a “new fashion”. 這就是你所謂的“新潮”。

7. guess what, 用于說出令人感到驚訝的事情前,意為“猜猜發生了什么事;告訴你一個消息”。例如:

Guess what! The thief was caught on the spot. 告訴你一個消息,小偷被當場抓住了。

8. I tell you what, 用于提出意見或建議,意為“我有個主意;你聽我說”。

9. What’s wrong? What’s the matter? 意為“怎么啦?發生了什么事?”

10. have what it takes, 意為“具備成功的必要條件”。例如:

I think he has got what it takes to be an internationalfootballer.

我認為他已具備作為世界級足球運動員的條件。

五、what 用于慣用句式中

1. “What be …like?” (1)表示“情況怎樣”,多指天氣或氣候。(2) 表示“像什么 ;什么樣,什么模樣,怎樣的”, 指人或事物。例如:

What is the weather like today

— What is your teacher like

— She is very kind and beautiful.  

What will life be like in the future  未來的生活是什么樣子呢?

另外,What… look like?只能指外表。例如:

What does she look like?—She is tall and pretty

2. “What do you think of…?”用于詢問對方對……的看法或評價,意為“你認為……怎么樣?”例如:

What do you think of the plan?你認為這個計劃怎樣?

What did you think of that film?你對那場電影評價如何?

注意:“ What do you think of…?”是慣用搭配,不能改為“How do you think of…?”。但我們可以說:How do you feel about the plan (that film)?或者How do you like/find the plan (that film)?

3. what 與do with連用,意為“(怎樣)處理、安排或對付等”。what常有較靈活的翻譯,常用結構是:“what …do with sth./sb.?”或“what to do with sth./sb.” do with只能與what搭配,而dealwith可與不同的疑問詞搭配。

例如:What will you do with the letter? 你將把那封信怎樣處理?

How will you deal with the letter?你將那封信怎樣處理?

4.  what = just as,意為“恰像,猶如,好比”,用作連詞,引導比較狀語從句。慣用句式是:

A is to B what C is to D. 意為“A對B而言正如C對D一樣”。

Air is to us what water is to fish. 空氣對于我們猶如水對于魚。

Reading is to mindwhat food is to the body. 讀書對于精神猶如食物對于身體。

六、what 在其所引導的從句中還可以作定語,意為“所…… 的全部,任何的”;與little、few 連用時,其含義多為“雖然少,但把所有的都…… ”例如:

She gave him what money she had. (=She gave him all the moneyshe had.) 她把自己僅有的錢都給了他。

Don’t worry. I will give you what help I can. 別擔心,我一定盡我所能幫你。

I will lend you what few reference books I can spare. 我愿把我用不著的雖然為數不多的參考書全部借給你。

She managed to save what little money she could out of herwages to help her brother.

七、what從句可用作賓語補足語或狀語。例如:

We will make the factory twice what it is today. 我們將使工廠比現在規模增加一倍。(句中的twice what it is today是賓語the factory的補足語)

八、what有時可用作副詞,表示“到……程度”。例如:

What (=How much) does the affair matter?這件事情有多重要

九. what用于有關度量等的提問中。what主要與這些名詞連用為what+age/depth/height/length/width,但在口語中用how old/deep/high/tall/long/wide?結構。在需要準確的回答時用what size/weight?結構,盡管也可用how big/heavy?結構。例如:

What age are you /What is your age?(=How old are you?)

What height is he?/What is his height?(=How tall is he?)

What is the length (width/depth) of the lake?(=Howlong/wide/deep is the lake?)這湖有多長(寬、深)?

What is the weight of the parcel?(=How heavy is it?)包裹有多重?

問價格、速度、人口、面積、門牌(汽車、電話等)號碼等時,只能用what提問,不能用how much提問。例如:

What is the cost (price) of the gold watch

What is the speed of the car?車速是多少?

What is the population (area) of China?中國的人口(面積)有多少(大)?

What money (cash) have you got? 你有多少錢(現金)?

What is your telephone (car、room) number? 你的電話(汽車、房間)號碼是多少?

問職業用what提問。例如:

—What is his father

—He is a cook

What is a lawyer ?  律師是干什么的?

十、what可以用作名詞。例如:  

By asking why,how and what if,curiousminds find new ideas and solutions.

通過刨根問底,提出假設,富有求知欲的天才人物想出了新主意,找出了解決問題的新辦法。

十一、what的強調形式whatever (anything that)。例如:

Whatever she does is ridiculous. 她的所作所為都是謊謬的。

Take whatever magazines you want to read. 任何你想讀的雜志都可以取閱。

Whatever you do, you can’t go against nature.  

鞏固性練習:從A、B、C、D四個選項中,選出可以填入空白處的最佳選項。

1. The other day, my brother drove his car down the streetat___ I thought was a dangerous speed.       A as B which C what D that

2.(2011湖南) Before a problem can be solved, it must beobvious ___the problem is. A what B that C Which D why

3.( 2011安徽)His writing is so confusing that it isdifficult to make out____it is he is trying to express.  

A. that B. how C. Who D. what

4 (2011北京) The shocking news made me realize____terrible problems we will face.

A. what B. How C. that  D.  why

5.(2011 江西) The villagers have already known _____wewill do is to rebuild the bridge. A this B that C what D which

6. (2010北京) ______some people regard as a drawback isseen as a plus.

A. whether B. what C. That D. How

7.( 2010 北京) I want to be liked and loved for ____I aminside.

A. who B. where C. what D. how

8. (2010 天津) As a new graduate, he doesn’t know________it takes to start a business here.

A. that B. what C. which D. it

9. (2010福建) We should respect food and think about thepeople who don’t have_____ we have here and treat food nicely.

A. that B. which C. What D. whether

10. ( 2010山東) Before the sales start, I make a listof ___my kids will need for the coming season.

A. why  B. what C. how D.which

答案:1-5 BADAC 6-10 BCBCB

以上就是我對高考中what常用的考點做的一個梳理,希望對大家有所幫助.

 
 
 
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